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The state is currently in the 2018-19 budget year that runs from July 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019. On January 10, 2019, the Governor released his proposed 2019-20 budget, and the May Revise to the Governor's budget was released on May 9, 2019. The Governor and the legislature spend the winter and spring months finalizing a budget ahead of the deadline on June 15th of each year. The new 2019-20 fiscal year will begin July 1, 2019 and end June 30, 2020.
The 2019-20 May Revise to the Governor’s Budget proposes spending of $213.4 billion in total state funds, consisting of $147 billion from the General Fund, $60.8 billion from special funds, and $5.6 billion from bond funds.
- More than three-quarters of the state budget goes to "local assistance" programs that include schools, community colleges, CalWORKS families, Medi-Cal doctors, child care providers, and others
- More than one-fifth of state spending goes to 23 CSU campuses, 10 UC campuses, 34 state prisons, and other recipients of "state operations" dollars
- Education makes up the majority of General Fund expenditures with 40.7 percent to K-12 education and 11.9 percent to higher education in 2019-20
- More than 60 percent of K-12 education funding is spent on direct instruction and the next largest category, instructional support, accounts for 11.9 percent
- Income taxes account for nearly 70 percent of the state's General Fund revenue, an increase from just over 40 percent in 2010 due to the passage of Proposition 30 in 2012 that raised income tax rates for the highest earners (and Proposition 55 in 2016 that extended the tax increase to 2030)
- The Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation is approximately 8.7 percent of General Fund expenditures in 2019-20
- The budget must be balanced—estimated revenues must meet or exceed the Governor's proposed spending
- Any change in state statute which results in any taxpayer paying a higher tax requires a 2/3 vote of each house of the state legislature
- The state budget is passed as a bill, though it differs from standard bills that change laws in that: it provides the authority to spend money across a vast array of services and agencies for a single year and it move through budget committees on its own timeline
- Budget-related bills (known as “trailer bills”) generally make the law changes related to the budget bill and moves in tandem with the budget bill as part of a “budget package”
More information from the California Budget & Policy Center: Understanding How the State Budget Process Relates to the Policy Bill Process (PDF)